There are many types of chemical reactions that take place in organism body and derive life such chemical reactions are called METABOLISMS. There are considered to be total 92 natural occuring chemical element . These natural occurring element are rang from simplest HYDROGEN to most heaviest URANIUM. “There are only 16 chemical element out of these 92 element that make most of the organism body (about 99 %) these element are called bio-element”. These bio-element are basis of life. They have many important properties that make them differ from other elements that why they are acceptable for working as basis of life.
LEVEL OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATIONS:
Biological organization is not very simples. It is highly complicated because it ranges from simple to complex one system. Biological organization is the result of many chemical reactions of bio-element and the working of many parts of body in assemble with each other . It has highly organized body. Following are the level of biological organisms:
ATOMIC AND SUBATOMIC PARTICLES:
THE smallest particles (like electron, proton , Neutron , alpha particles (etc)) that interact with eachother to form basic is called subatomic particles. Many subatomic particles are combine together, their combination result in formation of ATOM. Atom are very small in size.
Different types of atom are combine together to form large Molecule. It is happen because atoms are usually do not occur in free state. So they combine together to form stable particle instead of unstable particles. They link with each other through ionic bond or through covalent bond that may be polar or non-polar in nature. During the formation of molecule two types of formation of molecules take place. MICRO-MOLECULE: The low weight molecule are named as micro-molecule.( examples; CO2 , H2O etc). MACROMOLECULE: The molecules that are of higher weight is called macro-molecule. (examples; starch, proteins etc).The bonding between the molecule result in formation of two types of molecule; ORGANIC MOLECULE; The molecule that contain carbon and hydrogen in their structure is called organic molecule.(examples: glucose, fatty acid etc). INORGANIC MOLECULE: the molecule that do not have carbon and hydrogen in their structure is called inorganic molecule. (examples Water etc)
ORGANELLES & CELL LEVEL:
“Different micro and macro –molecule arrange them in a way that they form a structure called organelles.” Organelles is the sub-cellular structure of cell. The function of cell is accomplished by organelles. EXAMPLES: mitochondria, golgi-complex, endoplasmic reticulum etc. “The smallest organizational and utility unit of an organism which is characteristically infinitesimal and consist of cytoplasm and nucleus bound in membrance is cell.”Cell is the basic unit of life. Eukaryotes are rich in number and kinds of membranous organelles. The prokaryotes have only limited number and type of organelles in their cytoplasm.
“Any of the well-defined material of which animals and plants are made up of, consisting of specially-designed cell and their outcomes is called tissue” Each tissue have it specific role in life of organism. They form loose
sheet and bundles of cell. EXAMPLES: Muscle tissue , glandular tissue, xylem tissue, phloem tissue etc.
ORGAN AND ORGAN SYSTEM:
“ Different type of tissues that are specialized in perform similar type of function is called organ.” Organ perform there function with great efficiency. EXAMPLES: In human; stomach is the organ has a specialized function to perform in digestive system. It has a epithelium and muscular tissue . Epithelium tissue secretes gastric juice of food digestion. Whereas muscular tissue for contracting the wall of the stomach, help in proper mixing of gastric juice and food. “ Organ system is defined as all the organ in the body having a related function with each other form a group and work in unity with each other.”Organ system is highly complicated in organism. EXAMPLE: In human, the digestive system. In plant, the organ system is less defined .At most roots, stems, leaves and reproductive structure the organ of the plant.
The different organ and organ system work with each other in coordination is called individual. The whole system of human body work in unity with each other. EXAMPLE: when a man run to catch a ball not only his muscles of leg and arm wok his heart beat and rate of respiration also work. The nerves system also help by generate nerves impulses.
POPULATION AND COMMUNITY:
The group of same species living in same place at same time is called population. population is higher organism level than organisms. The group of different species livng at same place at same time is called community. The community is dynamic collection of species , in which one community is dynamic collection of species , in which one increase and other decrease.
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