DEFINE LYSOSOMES & ITS TYPES
“Single membrane bounded vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes and are rich in acid phosphatase is called lysosomes.” It can also defined as “an cell organelles present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cell containing abasement enzymes packed in the membrane is called Lysosomes.” They are found most in eukaryotic cell. Lysosomes taken from lyso = splitting and soma = body. They are different from all other cytoplasmic organelles because of their morphology.
These were isolated as a separate component for the first time by DE DUVE in 1949. He discover lysosomes by biochemical method. Then with electron microscopy he imaged lysosomes in cell.
Any foreign object that gains entry into the cell is immediately engulfed by the lysosome and is completely broken into simple digestible pieces this process is called phagocytosis. The hydrolytic enzymes that help in digestion are secreted by rough endoplasmic recticulum. The processed enzyme are budded off as Golgi vesicles and are called as primary lysosomes. Lysosomes also play an important role in autophagy. Autophagy is the process of cell eating. During the process, some worn out, old, damage parts of cell are digested in this way it help in recycled and renewed the parts of cell. Lysosomes also help in the cell degeneration during some development process and lysosomes also contain enzyme for extra-cellular digestion.
DISEASES CAUSED BY DEFICIENCY OF LYSOSOMES:
Several diseases have been found due to accumulation within the cell structure, substance like glycogen or glycolipids. These diseases are storage diseases caused by improper functioning of lysosomes. It is due the mutation occurs that effect the enzyme functioning help in lysosomes. EXAMPLES:
GLYCOGENOSIS TYPE II: the glycogen get filled in the liver and muscles within the membrane bounded organelles. It is because of the absence lysosomes enzyme involve in breakdown of glycogen in glucose.
TAY-SACH’S LYSOSOMES DISEASES; the lipid get filled in the brain cell due to the absence of lysosomes enzymes involve in the catabolism of lipid . it can cause serious problems like mental retardation and even cause death.
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